Those pioneers a hundred years ago (Andrew Lau)
Today introduces a “join the party earlier than the founding of the party” early party members, the red Fourth Army senior general Liu Angong martyr.Liu Angong, styled Ji Liang, was born in October 1899 in yongchuan County, Sichuan Province (now Yongchuan District, Chongqing Municipality), hegeng Township, Zhangjia, a scholarly family.His father, Liu Yingshan (Gen Zhan), was the alternate member of sichuan Provincial Parliament, the county magistrate of Xichong and Zizhong, and the principal of Sichuan Police Superintendent School. He was open-minded and progressive, which created a good learning atmosphere for Liu Angong.Among the four brothers, Liu Angong was the youngest. When he was young, he was taught by his grandmother in his hometown. In the early years of the Republic of China, he went to School in Chengdu with his father.He liked to read western scientific books and actively accepted new ideas. He advocated that women should be relaxed and enter new schools.When Liu Angong was 18 years old, in order to broaden his vision and explore the way to save the country and the people, he said goodbye to his parents and set foot on the road to study abroad.In Germany, Liu ankyong entered the University of Berlin to study electrical engineering. In addition to professional learning, he also extensively contacted the society and investigated people’s conditions, and deepened his understanding of western economy and culture.In 1918, liu angong joined the Comintern in Belgium and became a member of the Communist Party.During his stay in Germany, he got to know zhu De, Zhang Bojun and other members of the European branch of the Communist Party of China. Their common pursuit and common ideal made them become like-minded comrades and friends.In 1924, Liu angong finished his studies and returned to China to join the Chinese Revolution.He returned to Chengdu, shoulder the secret mission of the Communist Party of China, should sichuan army general Yang Sen hire, hold the post of its military staff and chengdu telephone bureau director.Liu angong in office, the implementation of the new system, hard governance.Xiao Lisheng, a former member of the CPPCC in Xicheng District, Chengdu, recalled that Liu angong was approachable in the telephone office and enjoyed a good relationship with the staff and high prestige.The old liu family still remembers that Liu angong, as a telephone director, was a man of certain status and was equipped with a sedan chair for his use (equivalent to the car now provided for leading cadres), but he never sat in it.Before long, the warlord infalls, Yang Sen is excluded, stationed in Wanxian county, Liu Angong also went to, for its acting soldier movement affairs, recruitment.In 1926, Zhu De, who had just returned from studying abroad in Germany, was ordered to do united Front work in Yangsen’s army in Wanxian county.After years of separation from Germany, Liu angong and Zhu De were very happy to meet again.But right now Yang Sen is stationed in Wuhan’s Northern warlord Wu Peifu have illusions, want to work hand in hand with it, beg its shelter, so do not want to break, and prepare for the opportunity to kill Zhu De and other political workers, and then send troops to aid Wu.On September 5, the “Wanxian Massacre” shocked the whole country.In order to denounce the crime of the British imperialist warship shelling Wanxian, the local party organization of Chongqing launched a huge mass struggle, forcing the British warship and its aggressors had to withdraw from Sichuan.Liu angong joined chu Teh and others in the struggle.Later, he made use of his advantages in military movement to actively instigate a regiment of Janssen to change its faction.Unexpectedly confidential divulge, Yang Sen orders wanted, Liu Angong is forced to leave Yang Sen army, dive to Nanchang.Soon, Zhu De also came here.In January 1927, Zhu De became commander of the Officer Education Regiment of the Third Army in Nanchang, and Liu Angong became deputy commander and joined the Communist Party of China.In August, the shots were fired for the Nanchang Uprising.According to the memory of Liu Zhenqiu, who served as the platoon leader of the third Army guidance Group of the Nanchang Rebellion army and the counsellors’ office of the Sichuan Provincial People’s Government, Liu Angong did political work in the rebellion army and served as the deputy head of the guidance group.After the failure of the Nanchang uprising, Liu angong followed the instructions of the Party and boarded a ship bound for the Soviet Union in Shanghai with Liu Bocheng, Wu Yuzhang and others, leaving the motherland once again to study at the Soviet Advanced Shooting school.On April 1, 1929, Zhu De and MAO Zedong led the Red Fourth Army to leave Changting, cross wuyi Mountain and return to Ruijin.Beginning in April, the Fourth Red Army was active in southern Gannan for more than a month, establishing three county-level revolutionary regimes in Yudu, Xingguo and Ningdu, and initially forming a situation of armed independence between workers and peasants in southern Gannan.On May 19, MAO Zedong, Zhu De led the Red Fourth Army from Wuyang Ruijin County across the Wuyi Mountain, into the west of Fujian.At this time, a “messenger” sent by the Central Committee of the Communist Party of China also came to the Red Fourth Army, bringing reports on the international and domestic situation at that time and other important documents.This “messenger” is Liu Angong.At the beginning of this year, Liu angong finished his study in the Soviet Union and returned to China.He from Zhangzhou, Xiamen via Longyan to Puping 58 regiment (local forces in western Fujian, later incorporated into the fourth column of the Red Army) resident, then via Liancheng transfer to gannan, on April 3 arrived at ruijin fourth Red Army headquarters.According to fu Bocui, a local armed leader in Western Fujian who received Liu angong in Jiaoyang, western Fujian (later serving as the commander of the fourth Column of the Red Fourth Army), what Liu angong brought to the Red Fourth Army were the resolutions of the “Six Major Conferences” of the COMMUNIST Party of China and important documents of the central committee.This important document was the Letter to Comrade Runzhi and Yujie from the Central Committee to transfer to the Hunan-Jiangxi Border Region special Committee, namely the Letter from the Central Committee in February.Liu angong’s arrival excited the leaders of the Red Army.Zhu De and Liu Angong were comrade-in-arms sharing weal and woe. They were very happy to be working together again after the nanchang Uprising.MAO Zedong was also pleased. He was not familiar with Liu Angong before, but this time the central government sent someone to help carry out the current work of the Red Fourth Army.Just a month earlier, the CPC Fujian Provincial Committee had also received a “letter in February” from the central committee, which made a pessimistic assessment of the whole revolutionary situation and asked the Red Fourth Army to disperse into small groups and carry out struggles in the countryside. It also asked Zhu De and MAO Zedong to leave the army and hide their major objectives.This undoubtedly poured cold water on the Red Army commanders and fighters who were waging an armed struggle in full force.MAO Zedong promptly replied to the Central Committee on behalf of the Former Committee on April 5, rejecting the central committee’s request.The former Committee studied and decided to resume the establishment of the provisional Military Commission. MAO Zedong, secretary of the former Committee, proposed that the secretary of the provisional Military Commission be Liu Angong and concurrently director of the Political Department.MAO zedong in a report to the central wrote: “in January this year, the four forces from the hunan-kiangsi border area to the border of fujian, jiangxi, daily march, under a special environment, deal with the environment feel overlap of CMC, hence resolution suspended military commission office, the concentration of power to the front, front committee directly under the guidance of the organizing committee.Now because of the long period of time and the development of the Red Army, the number of increased than before, the former committee can not take into account, then decided to organize the highest party headquarters of the four armies.Comrade Liu Angong will be secretary and Director of the Political Department.”At this point, Liu Angong has become one of the main leaders of the Red Fourth Army.In the following period of time, the leadership of the Red Army made strategic plans and studied specific action plans, all of which were signed by MAO Zedong, Zhu De and Liu Angong.In late May, Liu Angong, Zhu De and MAO Zedong jointly wrote a letter, urgently summoned Fu Bocui to discuss matters, arranged the task of blocking the rear pursuit of jiangxi enemy Li Wenbin, and made specific arrangements for the Fourth Red Army to attack longyan campaign.He immediately assisted Zhu De and MAO Zedong to lead the fourth Red Army into the west of Fujian for the second time, and attacked Longyan three times.After the guangdong-Guangxi War broke out, the 1st mixed brigade of fujian Defense Army stationed in Longyan went to The Dongjiang area of Guangdong to fight with the Guangxi warlords, resulting in an empty force in western Fujian.The main force of the Red Fourth Army seized this favorable opportunity and captured longyan City for the first time on May 23, annihilating 2 battalions.The red army withdrew from Longyan to occupy yongding county, provincial defense forces and rushed back to occupy Longyan.On June 3, the Red Fourth Army sent three columns to assist the local forces in western Fujian to capture Longyan again, and the enemy fled to Zhangping and Yongfu.At this time, the Fujian defense forces returned to western Fujian.The Red Fourth Army withdrew from Longyan and Yongding and gathered in Xinquan and Caixi for rest, creating the illusion of retreat to Jiangxi.On The 19th, when the 1st Mixed Brigade of fujian Defense Army just opened into Longyan, the Red Fourth Army took advantage of its surprise and launched an attack from the south, west and north, occupying Longyan for the third time.In addition to brigade commander Chen Guohui disguised to escape, more than 2000 people were wiped out.The victory of three dozen Longyan allied the red areas in western Fujian, greatly promoted the revolutionary struggle in western Fujian, and laid a foundation for the establishment and consolidation of western Fujian base area.In late June, the Red Fourth Army was reorganized into four columns, with Liu Angong as commander of the second column.Soon after, liu angong was elected as a member of the front committee of the Red Fourth Army at the seventh party Congress held by the Red Fourth Army.The victory of the Red Fourth Army in western Fujian greatly threatened the enemy.In July 1929, Chiang Kai-shek mobilized more than 20,000 troops from Fujian, Jiangxi and Guangdong provinces, under the general command of jin Handing, commander of the 12th Division, to launch a large-scale attack from Zhangzhou, Dapu and Changting to Longyan, Yongding and Gutian and launch a large-scale “hui suppression” campaign in the three provinces.According to the situation of the enemy, the front committee of the Fourth Red Army decided to adopt the policy of “luring the enemy into the red area and destroying one side”, with the first and fourth columns remaining in western Fujian to persist in guerrilla warfare and defend the base areas;Military command rate of the second, the third column attack central Fujian.On the second anniversary of the Nanchang Uprising, Liu Angong led the second column and the third column together, and twice as many of the enemy engaged in a fierce battle, in the middle of August when they arrived in the central Fujian area, they found that the conditions for moving northward were unfavorable, so they changed their guerrilla plan to the border of Jiangxi, Zhejiang and Anhui, and decided to return to the west of Fujian.On August 29, liu angong’s second column and other main troops of the Red Fourth Army killed an enemy regiment in the south of Xi on their way back.On the 30th, zhang Ping was captured, and another enemy battalion was destroyed. Zhang Rukuang’s brigade under Fujian warlord Zhang Zhen was defeated.The enemy who attacked Longyan fled hurriedly, thus crushing the first “meeting and suppression” of the enemy forces in Jiangxi, Fujian and Guangdong provinces to the western Fujian base area.As the two columns led by Liu Angong achieved brilliant results, the commanders and fighters praised: “Our commander Liu commanded well, the two battles really beautiful!”Shanghang, an important town in western Fujian, was surrounded by water on three sides and was easy to defend and difficult to attack. Lu Xinming, another warlord from Fujian, and his remaining thousands of people were entrenched in it, which became an obstacle to the development of western Fujian revolution.In order to eliminate the reactionary forces in Shanghang, the Special committee of West Fujian launched the peasants to attack the county twice from August to early September, but the result was unsuccessful.The second and fourth columns of the red Army, which attacked central Fujian, returned to western Fujian, redeployed, and attacked Shanghang again.At midnight on September 21, the siege began.Liu Angong, responsible for attacking the north gate, commanded the troops to climb to the top of the city, and led the department of the brave burst into the city, wipe out the defending Fujian army temporarily organized the second brigade, annihilated more than two thousand people.Only lu Xinming, the bandit leader, hurriedly led several followers to sneak across the pontoon bridge and flee from the back roads.The red flag was inserted into the upper Hangzhou city, and the Red Army was strengthened.MAO Zedong, who was recuperating, heard the news of the victory of the battle of Shanghang, gladly picked up the pen and wrote “the red flag jumped over the Ting River, straight down longyan Shanghang, clean up the Jin ‘ou piece, the field is really busy”.Liu angong was not only good at war, but also good at ideological and political work.He often gave political and military lectures to the commanders and fighters.He explained the profound knowledge of Marxist political economy and military theory in a simple and profound way, leaving a deep impression on the hearts of the cadres and soldiers of the Red Fourth Army.On the second anniversary of the Nanchang Uprising, after a pitched battle with an enemy twice as large as their own, Liu was “lecturing the rest of the group on the rise of fascism in Europe,” Zhu recalls.Italian fascism, he said, had come to power under Mussolini.International bankers are propping up German capitalism and trying to destroy the German Republic.The second World War is being planned, and unless the working class of the world is organized and united, and unless the Chinese people overthrow the authoritarian regime of Chiang Kai-shek and turn China into a base for peace and progress, there is no way to stop the second World War.General Shawk also recalled, “In April 1929, after the Red Army captured Ningdu, they stayed for a few days.One day, we had a meeting at the military headquarters. A stranger came in and was introduced to us as Liu Angong.He gave us lectures on the spirit of the Central leadership and political economy.There is one sentence I still remember: ‘The capitalists rationalized production with the technology of the non-stop conveyor belt, so that no worker could rest for a single second.In late September, the eighth Party Congress of the Red Fourth Army was held in Shanghai.The former Committee had planned to mobilize the masses by dividing troops in Shanghang and Wuping, and prepared to deal with the enemy’s new “hui suppressing”.At this time, a letter from the Central Committee of the Communist Party of China ordered the Red Fourth Army to the Dongjiang area of Guangdong Province to support and develop the revolutionary struggle there.Accordingly, the front committee of the Fourth Red Army decided to leave the fourth column in the west of Fujian to persist in the struggle, and the military headquarters led the first column, second column and third column to dongjiang in Guangdong province.Liu Angong led the second column with Zhu De’s army commander into Guangdong in October. Knowing that there was only one regiment occupying Mei County, liu planned to take advantage of the enemy’s surprise and attack the city of Mei County.However, the enemy actually consisted of two regiments and resisted stubbornly. The two columns of the Red Fourth Army repeatedly attacked and were repeatedly forced to withdraw. Finally, they had to move to southern Jiangxi.October 21, in the west of Guangdong Yongding and Tai Po at the junction of shixia dam, two columns and strong enemy encounter, Liu Angong personally led the brigade from luxia dam wading, jumping ting River.After the rock found defending the enemy yue army in the tiger city in front of the hill fortification, control of the high point, if the Red Army can not rush up, will be forced to the river rapids were destroyed.Liu angong quickly organized commandos to mount a charge.The fire of the defenders was heavy and the Red army was cornered in the col.Liu Angong saw this, seized a soldier’s machine gun personally strafe cover.The Red Army soldiers were encouraged, all courageously, rushed to the top of the hill, and launched a hand-to-hand combat with the enemy.Liu angong is leading the brigade to follow up, suddenly a bullet flying, hit his head.Chief of staff Guo Hua-ruo is urgent to carry the commander, on the way to Yongding County, Liu Angong was injured and sacrificed, comrades will bury him in the village of xianshi township wu Tian.This battle, the Red Army defeated the enemy’s two battalions, captured the tiger city, but the Red Army commander Liu Angong sacrificed his life at the age of only 30.Liu angong’s sacrifice was the first loss of a senior general since the Red Army descended from Jinggang Mountain, which caused the Red Army to suffer “unprecedented loss since entering Fujian”.When the Red Fourth Army entered the Dongjiang River this time, it suffered heavy casualties. The first and second columns were reduced by one battalion each, and the third column by one detachment.”The Iron army was defeated here two years ago,” Chu later told Agnes Smedley, author of The Great Road: The Life and Times of Chu De.This time they were defeated again by the 19th Route Army.The Red Fourth Army lost hundreds of men, but one of the biggest losses was the death of liu Ankang, the highly educated colonel of the Red Army.”Liu Angong also made some mistakes during his tenure as secretary of the Red Fourth Army’s Military Commission.Lacking sufficient knowledge of the realities of the Chinese revolution and the strategies and tactics of guerrilla warfare at that time, he applied the formal military theories applicable to the Red Army to the Red Fourth Army.After serving as secretary of the Military Commission, he presided over the decision to limit the power of party representatives, requiring the front Committee to discuss only action issues and not to take care of other matters. Excessive emphasis on centralization suppressed democracy and aroused the dissatisfaction of the majority of the Red Fourth Army party members.Later, he was dismissed as the secretary of the Military Commission and director of the Political Department for his remarks that were not conducive to unity and aggravated internal conflicts in the Red Fourth Army.In April 1985, after careful verification and verification, the General Administration and other units reassessed Liu angong in a realistic manner. The Ministry of Civil Affairs of the CPC Central Committee approved Liu angong as a revolutionary martyr and issued a “Revolutionary Martyr Certificate”. The Editorial Board of Biography of Revolutionary Martyrs of the Party History Research Office of the CPC Central Committee agreed to write a biography of Liu and praise his revolutionary deeds.